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COMBINING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES WITH COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

COMBINING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES WITH COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Example :
a. It was raining hard. There was a strong wind.
b. It was raining hard , there was a strong wind ( incorrect puntuation )

Note
Example (a) contains two independent clauses or two complete sentences . the punctuation must be a period is used to separate two independent clauses , not a comma. In (b) is not correctv. The error is called “ a run-on sentence

A conjuntion may be used to connect two independent clauses.
PUNCTUATION :
Usually a comma immediately precwedes the conjunction,
Example :
- it was raining hard , and there was a strong wind.
In short sentences , the comma is sometimes omitted
Example :
- it was raining hard and there was a strong wind.

In informal writing , a conjuntion sometimes begins a sentence.
Example :
- it was raining hard. And there was a strong wind

In addition to and , but , or and nor, other conjunctions are used to connect two independent clauses.

Example :
a. He was tired, so he want to bed
b. The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for the was afraid of the dog
She did not study , yet she passed the exam

Note :
So ( meaning “therefore, as a result”)
For ( meaning “ because”)
Yet ( meaning “ but, nevertheles”)
A comma almost always precedes so , for , and yet  when they are used as coordinating conjunctions.**
*in British English, a period is called” a full stop”
** so,for and yet have aother meanings in other structures: e.g. he is not so tall as his brother.( so=as), we waited for the bus ( for=a preposition), she hasn’t arrived yet ( yet=an adverb meaning “ up to this time”)

Exercise :
Combining independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions.
Directions : pinctuate the sentences by adding commas or periods. Do not add any words. Capitalize where necessary

1. the boys walked the girl ran
   ---> the boys walked . the girl ran
2. the teacher lectured the students took notes
3. The teacher lectured and the students took notes
4. Elena came to the meeting but pedro stayed home
5. Elena came to the meeting her brother stayed home
6. Her academic record was outstanding yet she was not accepted by the university
7. I have not finished writing my term paper yet I will not be finished until sometime next week
8. We had to go to the grocery store for some mil and bread
9. We had to go to the grocery store for there was nothing in the house to fix for dinner
10. Kostas didn’t have enough money to buy an airplane ticket so he couldn’t fly home for the holiday.


Exercise 2 : combining independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions
Directions : punctuate the sentences by adding commas or periods. Do not add any words. Capitalize where necessary

1. a thermometer is used to measure temperature a barometer measures air pressure
2. Daniel made many promises but he had no intention of keeping them
3. I always enjoyed mathematics in high school so I decided to majorin it in college
4. Anna is in serious legal trouble for she had no car insurance at the time of the accident
5. Last night martha had to study for a test so she went to the library
6. The ancient egyptians had good denstist archeologists have found mummies that had gold fillings in their teeth
7. Both John and I had many errands to do yesterday John had to go to the post office and the bookstore I had to go to the post office the travel agency and the bank
8. I did not like the leading actor yet the movie was quite good on the whole
9. The team of researchers has not finished compiling the statistics yet their work will not be made public until later
10. We have nothing to fear for our country is strong and united
11. He slapped his desk in disgust he had failed another examination and had ruined his chances for a passing grade in the course
12. I struggled to keep my head above water I tried to yell for help but no sound came from my mouth
13. The earthquake was devastating tall buildings crumbled and fell to the e

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