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Sunday, November 18, 2018

HAVE / HAS / HAD

HAVE / HAS / HAD

Have/has adalah salah satu kata kerja yang sering digunakan dalam percakapan.have / has artinya mempunyai.

Article a / an / the

Article a / an / the

Article adalah kata sandang. Article terdiri dari a , an dan The. Disini kita akan membahas article a dan an”.

THERE IS dan THERE ARE

THERE IS dan THERE ARE

Dalam conversation bahasa Inggris THERE IS dan THERE ARE sering digunakan yang artinya “ ada “

Kata Tunjuk / Demonstrative : THAT dan THOSE

THAT dan THOSE

Selain Kata tunjuk / Demonstrative this dan these , kita akan mengetahui kata tunjuk lain yaitu THAT dan THOSE artinya Itu “ . Kata penunjuk ini digunakan untuk menunjuk benda yang tidak dekat dengan si penunjuk dengan kata lain , benda tersebut jauh.

Saturday, November 17, 2018

Kata Tunjuk / Demonstratives : This / these

This / these

Kata Tunjuk THIS dan THESE biasa digunakan dalam kalimat untuk menunjuk sesuatu. THIS dan THESE artinya " Ini ". Untuk menunjuk benda dalam jarak dekat dengan si penunjuk.
Cara menggunakan This dan These tergantung dari to be yang mengikuti nya.
This di ikuti oleh to be IS dan bentuk noun / benda nya harus Tunggal / Singular ( tidak boleh lebih dari satu ) sementara THESE di ikuti oleh tobe ARE dan bentuk noun / benda nya harus Jamak / Plural ( Lebih dari satu )

To be

To be

To be adalah Kata Kerja Bantu atau Auxiliary . To be diperlukan dalam mebentuk kalimat. To be terdiri dari ( am , is , are ) dan lazim nya ditempatkan setelah subject

PENGGUNAAN KALIMAT PASSIVE ( Lanjutan )

PENGGUNAAN KALIMAT PASSIVE   

Biasanya , Kalimat Passive digunakan tanpa sebuah phrase by. Kalimat Passive paling sering digunakan disaat itu tidak familiar atau tidak penting untuk diketahui dengan pasti siapa yang perfom an action.

OBJECT TIDAK LANGSUNG SEBAGAI SUBJECT PASSIVE

OBJECT TIDAK LANGSUNG SEBAGAI SUBJECT PASSIVE

I.O =Indirect Object , D.O = Direct Object
Salah satu object tidak langsung atau object langsung boleh menjadi subject dari kalimat Passif.

Kalimat Passive

Kalimat Passive

Didalam Kalimat Passsive ,  objek dari kata kerja aktif menjadi subjek dari kata kerja pasif:
Contoh :
- Active : Mary helped the boy ( Mary membantu anak Laki laki )
- Passive : The boy was helped by Mary ( anak Laki laki dibantu oleh Mary ) bentuk kalimat nya sudah lampau ditandai dengan tob be " was " jika present , to be nyamenggunaka "is"

Wednesday, November 14, 2018

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Menggunakan a few and few ; a little and little dalam kalimat

Using a few and few ; a little and little

a few and a little memberi ide positif; mereka menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu ada, is present.

Contoh :

- she has been here only two weeks, but she has already made a few friends ( Dia / Perempuan baru dua minggu di sini, tapi dia sudah punya beberapa teman ) ( positive ideas : she has made some friends )

Kata Kerja Tidak Beraturan / Irregular Verbs dalam Susunan sesuai abjad

IRREGULAR VERBS  : AN ALPHABETICAL LIST

Simple Form                        Simple Past                         Past Participle                         meaning

Arise                                      Arose                                   arisen                                       appear
Be                                          was/were                            been                                         menjadi/telah
Bear                                      bore                                      borne/born                             menanggung/tahan
Beat                                      beat                                      beaten/beat                            mengalahkan

Using progresisve verbs with always to complain

Using progresisve verbs with always to complain

In sentence referring to present time , usually the simple present is used with always to discribe habitual or everyday activities,
Example :
- Mary always leaves for school at 7:45

SIMPLE PAST

SIMPLE PAST

The Simple Past indicates that an activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past.

Example :
a. I walked to school yesterday
b. John lived in Paris for ten years , but now he lives in Rome
c. I bought a new car three days ago

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

SUBJECT  OBJECT  POSSESSIVE  POSSESSIVE
                   PRONOUN       PRONOUN PRONOUN   ADJECTIVE

Singular    I   me  mine   my book
                   You   you         yours          your book
                   She,he,it     her,him,it hers , his , its her , his , its book

Plural            we   us  ours   our books
                   You    you  yours   your books
                   They   them  theirs   their books

ABILITY : CAN and COULD

ABILITY : CAN and COULD 

Can is used to express physical ability.
- Tom is strong. He can lift that heavy box

Can is frequently used with verbs of the five senses : see , hear , feel , smell , taste
- I can see Central Park from my apartment

Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Advisability : SHOULD , OUGHT TO , HAD BETTER

Advisability : SHOULD , OUGHT TO , HAD BETTER

1. Should and ought to have the same meaning; they express advisability. The meaning ranges in strength from a suggestion ( “ this is a good idea “ ) to a statement about responsibility or duty(“ this is a very important thing to do” )

Example :

a. You should study harder
  You ought to study harder
b. Drivers should obey the speed limit
  Drivers ought to obey the speed limit

Spelling of - ing and -ed forms

Spelling of - ing and -ed forms

1. verbs that end in a consonant and -e

Example : hope      hoping    hoped
     Date      dating     dated
     Injure    injuring   injured

Note : Ing form : if the words ends in -e drop the -e and add
 ( exception if a verbs ends in -ee, the final -e is dropped : seeing, agreeing, freeing )
 Ed form : if the word ends in a consonant and -e , just add -d

Expressing necessity : MUST , HAVE TO , HAVE GOT TO

Expressing necessity : MUST , HAVE TO , HAVE GOT TO

MUST and HAVE TO both express necessity

Example :

a. All applicants must take an entrance exam
b. All applicants have to take an entrance exam

Note : it is necessary for every applicant to take an entrance exam. There is no other choice. The exam is required

In everyday statements of necessity, have to is used more commonly than must . must is usually stronger than have toband can indicate urgency or stress importance.

Example :

a. I’m looking for sue. I have to talk to her about our lunch date tomorrow. I can’t meet her for lunch because I have to go to a business meeting at 1:00
b. Where’s sue ? I must talk to her right away. I have to urgent message for her

note :

In (a) : the speaker is simply saying, “ I need to do this, and I need to do that. “
In (b) : the speaker is strongly saying, “ this is very important !“

Have to is usually pronounced “hafta”;
has to is usually pronounced “ hasta”

Example :
a. I have to (“hafta”) be home by eight
b. He has to (“hasta”) go to a meeting tonight

Have got to also expresses the idea of necessity:
Example :
a. I have to go now. I have a class in ten minutes
b. I have to go now. I have a class in ten minutes

Note :
a and b have the same meaning. Have got to is informal and is used primarily in spoken english. Have to is used in both formal and informal english

Usual pronounciation of got to is “gotta”. sometimes have is dropped in speech: “ I gotta do it”

Example :
- I have got to go ( “ I have gotta go / I gotta go”)  now

The idea of past necessity is expressed by had to. There is no other past form for must ( when it means necessity ) or have got to

Exercise : MUST , HAVE TO , HAVE GOT TO.
Directions : Answer the question. Practise pronouncing the usual spoken forms of have to and have got to 

1. what are some of the things you have to do tday or tomorrow ?
2. What does ……. have to do todays ?
3. What have you got to do after class ?
4. What has ………….. got to do after class ?
5. Can you think of something very important that you must do today or tomorrow ?
6. What is something that you had to do yesterday ?
7. Ask a classmate a question using have to and what time/where/how often/why.*

* a form of do is used with have to inquestions : e.g., when does he have to leave ?

Lack of necessity and prohibition : have to and must in the negative

When used in the negative , must and have to have different meanings

Lack of necessity

a. Tomorrow is a holiday. We don’t have to go to class
b. I can hear you. You don’t have to shout

Do not have to = lack of necessity in (a) it is not necessary for us to go to class tomorrow because it is a holiday.

Must not = prohibition ( do not do this )

Prohibition
a. You must not look in the closet. Your birthday present in hidden there.
b. You must not tell anyone my secret. Do you promise ?

Note : negative contraction : mustn’t ( the first “t” is silent:”muss-ent”)
- lack of necessity may also be expressed by need not + the simple form of verb : you needn’t shout .the use of needn’t as an auxiliary is chiefly Britihs Except in certain common expressions such as “ you needn’t worry “

Exercise : HAVE TO and MUST in the negative
Directions : use must not or do not have to in the following
1. I’ve already finished all my work, so I don’t have to study tonight. I think I’ll read for a while
2. I must not forget to take my key with me
3. You ……………… introduce me to Dr.Gray. We’ve already met
4. In order to be a good salesclerk, you ……………….. be rude to a costumer
5. A person …………….. become rich and famous in order to live a successful life
6. Johnny ! you ………. play with sharp knives. Put that knife down immediately!
7. I …………….. go to the doctor. I’m feeling much better
8. We ………..go to the concert if you don’t want to , but it might be good
9. Robin ! what are you doing ? no, no, no. You ……………….put your vitamin pill in your nose!
10. Bats ………….see in order to avoid obstacles. They can navigate in complete darkness
11. If you encounter a growling dog , you ……………… show any signs of fear. If a dog senses far, it is more likely to attack person.
12. A person ……….. get married in order to lead a happy and fulfilling life

Exercise : HAVE TO and MUST in the negative
Directions : complete the sentences with your own words
Possible response : students in elementary school don’t have to pay tuition
Example : students must not ……………
Possible response : students must not cheat during tests

1. children must not ………….
2. Children don’t have to …….
3. Drivers must not …………
4. Drivers don’t have to …….
5. We don’t have to ……..
6. We must not …………..
7. ….… doesn’t have to ……..
8. ….….. must not …..
9. Waiters must not …….
10. Waiters don’t have to …….
11. I don’t have to ……
12. I must not ………

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